(Gravity excerpt)


Sean Sinjin





© Copyright 2003, Sean Sinjin.  All rights reserved.  Edition 1.5

ISBN    0-9762271-0-X


No part of this writing may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the express written permission of the author. 


Meme, much like our perspective on reality, is an ever-evolving story.  Be sure to visit us on the Internet at:


for revisions, as Meme continuously changes to reflect reality as accurately as possible.

{Note to reader:  Please be aware that the target audiences for this writing are people that are not very well educated in the sciences, and as such the nomenclature may not be representative of typical scientific literature.  This is in the attempt to express these complicated theories with terminology that would be more familiar and digestible to the typical layperson}





          For a moment let’s take a seeming tangent and talk about space, referring to outer space, aether, that big emptiness just past the end of the upper atmosphere.  It might be confusing to ask the question, “what is space”, when by common definition space is “what isn’t”, or a complete vacuum.  Let’s challenge that understanding by proposing that space “is”, rather than “isn’t”.  It wasn’t so long ago that most scientists entertained the concept of “aether”, and this theory described aether as a medium, or rather a “sea” of some substance in which we were suspended, like fish in an ocean.  Aether filled every nook and cranny of the universe.  Of late though, unfortunately, this theory was abandoned for the “isn’t” version of aether, an empty void, merely on the premise that we couldn’t find a way to measure the “flow” of aether.  The minds of the time thought for sure that if we are immersed in a sea of aether, then we should be able to measure our relative speed as we move through it.  No luck there.  Proof of the existence of aether with fluid-like properties was not to be had, and so the aether concept of space was abandoned since it seemed to complicate things unnecessarily. 

Could Occam’s razor have been wielded prematurely?  Let’s re-invite this aether concept but with a different name, “Bether”, and different attributes than the historical sea-like version.  One endearing new quality we’ll introduce is homogeneity, or a lack of particles.  Our relativity-compatible bether claims to be the only substance in existence, and also claims that it is not composed of smaller particles, it is simply pure.  We’ll use a “soft, massless, transparent rubber” model to help us describe the properties of bether, rather than the fluid, sea-like historic model.  The advantage of our model is that you cannot easily “stir” rubber and this is fundamental to the concepts about to be introduced.  Bether is very much a real substance, not merely a metaphysical construct for the convenience of mathematics.  Also, think about just how odd the property of homogeneity really is—it renders bether to be absolutely frictionless.  There isn’t a lubricant in the world that can compare to the slipperiness of bether.  The importance of this property pertaining to gravity is explained later.  As well, later there’ll be an answer to the obvious question: if our bether is the only substance in existence, then how can we exist?

          So what can you do with bether?  The same things you could do to a transparent rubber brick: maybe squeeze it, stretch it, twist it, or even vibrate it.  By influencing our bether, you are affecting its ambient “pressure” and it will be forced to “elastically” respond to these influences.  What does it mean to say bether is compressed, or stretched, or even twisted for that matter?  To explain, imagine you had your very own solid, massless, transparent rubber brick. 


Transparent Rubber Brick with no pressure or stretching


If you were to squeeze the brick, it would increase in internal pressure. 


High pressure


If you were to stretch the brick by pulling it from both ends, the internal pressure would be negative, or stretched.


Negative pressure (stretching)


If you were to shake it vigorously at one end, you would shortly feel it shaking at the other end. 




If you were to twist the ends of the brick in opposite directions a few times, you would feel the material resist that twisting, but the average ambient pressure would remain roughly the same.


Despite twisting, bether pressure is unaffected but the elastic resistance to the twisting increases


Continue to twist and you will eventually get a knot in the middle of our rubber brick. 




The limited actions just described demonstrate the essence of bether, and that’s about all you can do with bether.  Not a lot of options, but luckily for us, that’s all it needs to do in order for everything around us to exist.  We’re going to call this science “Betherdynamics”.




Let’s start with the twisting option: if you were to take an arm’s length of finely-braided rope, stretch it out between your two hands, and then start twisting the rope by repeatedly rolling your right fist forwards and then re-grabbing the rope so as to continue twisting it forwards, you would eventually twist the rope so far that it would be forced to somewhere “kink” into a loop in order to relieve some of the strain that the twisting has caused.  Once the loop had formed, you would notice that the rope was now slightly shorter in length between your hands since some of the rope would be gathered in the loop. 


A: Continuously twisting this rope…

B: …causes a loop to eventually form

C: Overall length is shorter


If you continued to twist the rope, it would form yet even more of these loops, relieving the twisting strain and shortening the overall span of the rope.  The same thing happens with our bether.  If you were able to “grab” a length of bether (hypothetically speaking of course) and had the strength to continuously twist it, it would also eventually form a loop in the attempt to alleviate the strain of the twisting on our bether.  This single loop that forms is a simple “particle”.  This is not an analogy; particles are nothing more than bether that is all twisted into itself, just like our rope’s loop.

          Once a loop (particle) has formed in our rope, the twisting strain is greatly reduced on the remainder of the rope because the loop uses most of that force to form itself.  Now, let’s move that loop back and forth along the rope by gently pushing on it.  You will see the loop maintains its shape, but the rope material flows through the loop as the loop moves along the rope. 


A: Pushing the loop

B: The rope flows through the loop

C: The loop maintains its shape


This is the same mechanism for moving particles in bether.  The particle is nothing more than twisted bether, and for a particle to move in bether, it simply allows bether to flow through it, maintaining its shape as it moves along.  The difference with bether though is that there is no resistance for a particle to flow through it, unlike in our rope model where there is subtle friction that resists the ability of the loop in a rope to move freely.  A more practical real-world model of a particle moving through bether might be a wave in water moving effortlessly horizontally, giving the impression of lateral movement when the water is actually moving up and down in a pattern that results in the apparently moving wave shape. 



A: Waves apparently moving horizontally

B: Water really only moves up and down


By the same token, a particle will allow bether to flow through it so that the particle’s “shape” is transported to another location in bether.  The bether itself does not move from its original location, just the location of the particle’s shape moves. 

Because of the important property of bether’s “homogeneity”, a particle can freely move about but will be unable to detect its own movements through the bether since being perfectly still and moving at extreme velocities both afford absolutely no friction to the particle.  Essentially, bether can be treated as if it has no velocity relative to any particle, no matter how fast the particle may be thought of as moving.  A particle moving through bether experiences no friction because the energy taken from the particle to warp the bether into the particle’s shape is returned to the particle after the particle shape has passed through, leaving the bether in its original condition. 


Particle speeding through bether

B: Bether is left in exactly the same position before…

C: …and after a particle passes through it, therefore, no energy is lost and no friction is experienced


We can make an analogy with a ball rolling along at a certain speed, then losing speed as it rolls up a small hill, and accelerating while rolling down the other side, to finally resume its original velocity. 


A: Ball rolling at full speed…

B: …loses speed going uphill…

C: …then regains speed going down the other side…

D: …to continue on at its original speed


The homogenous, soft, massless, transparent rubber model of bether will still allow for Albert Einstein’s General and Special Relativity but also allows for some other interesting insights. 

Next let’s move our loop nearly to the left end of our rope. 


A: Person holding rope

B: Push loop to the left


Have another person (person B) hold onto the rope in the middle in such a way that the loop is isolated in one half between person B’s hand and your left hand. 



Now with your right hand, twist the rope much like you did the first time to form the first loop, except this time, rotate the rope in the opposite direction by rolling your right fist backward repeatedly. 



After enough twisting, you should have formed a second loop in the right half of the rope between person B’s hand and your right hand. 



You should notice that the second loop that you just formed has the opposite twist as the first loop does.  This is analogous to an anti-particle, meaning that anti-particles are nothing more than twisted bether that is twisted in the direction opposite to normal particles.  Allow person B to now let go of the rope; the two loops instantly unravel each other and leave the rope dangling slightly between your two hands since the rope material that was contained within the loops has now been returned to the length of the rope.


A: Person holding rope

B: Second Person lets go of rope

C: The loops unravel each other

D: The rope is left dangling


          One failing of our rope example is that as you twist, the twisting strain is evenly distributed along the entire length of the rope.  This fails to reproduce what really happens to our bether.  When bether is twisted into a particle, it pulls on surrounding bether in a spherical fashion.  This distributes the stretching evenly over the surface of any chosen spherical radius from the particle, but as the radius increases, the intensity of the stretching decreases given the increasing surface area within which the effects of the stretching are spread out. 


A: Particle

B: Very stretched bether

C: Less stretched bether


As you get further and further away from a particle, the effect of it stretching its surrounding bether diminishes rapidly.  Bether resists being stretched, much like a spring does, but unfortunately for bether, it can’t unravel particles at will to relieve this stretching, just like the rope is unable to unloop itself while you are still holding the ends, and so bether is constantly under this stretching tension in the vicinity of particles. 


At this point you must surely be asking yourself what the infrastructure of atomic particles could possibly have to do with your happiness, or even with your life in any way.  Of course it may seem rather obscure now but as you progress through this book, you will realize that each step we take builds upon the previous one, and eventually we will reach a point of something recognizably human.  But for now, please bear with the essentials and I hope I don’t lose you to boredom.




          So around every particle is a stretched region of bether since most of the adjacent bether is now tightly wrapped up in the twisted core of the particle, stretching the remaining bether around it.  How does a particle’s immediately surrounding bether being stretched affect you?  Well for one, it keeps you on Earth…that’s right, this is the seed of gravity.  What exactly is gravity?  Let’s create another model to help explain that.  Between two tables, lay out a blanket to exactly span the distance between the tables and place heavy objects on the blanket corners to keep the blanket taut and fully extended, but not stretched.  In our model, the blanket represents a slice of bether. 


A: Blanket suspended between two tables


Now grab a small section of the blanket just left of the center with your hand and twist it until you have created a tight twist in the blanket.  You should feel the blanket resist the twisting and also notice that it shows visible lines of stress fanning out from the twist point.  This is our particle; and his name is “Bart”.


A: Bart


Now Bart is having a grand old time just sitting around by himself, but on another section of the blanket, let’s twist another particle into existence, calling this one “Angel”.  Let’s say two “units” of distance separate Bart and Angel. 


A: Bart

B: Angel

C: 2 arbitrary units of length apart


By twisting these particles loops into our blanket, you will see the fabric stretch in the immediate vicinity of the particles.  You may notice that the amount of stretching that each section of blanket endures varies from location to location about the blanket, but you should also notice that the stretching on the blanket is greatest on the line directly between the two particles (if not then twist both the particles harder until the stretching effects they exert on the blanket overlap each other). 


Top view of blanket

A: Bart

B: Angel

C: Plenty of stretching

D: Very little stretching


This demonstrates that our bether is significantly more stretched on the line directly between Bart and Angel compared to other equidistant regions around each particle. 

Next, we’re going to paint the outer edges of the blanket black but as we paint closer to either Bart or Angel we’ll use a lighter and lighter shade until they are each immediately surrounded by a small white circle.  What you’ll see when we’re finished is the two particles surrounded by color bands that get lighter the closer you get to either particle. 


Bether Stretching Chart

A: Bart

B: Angel

C: Most stretched

D: Decreasing stretching


In the end, we will have created a modestly inaccurate but informational bether stretching chart.  The lighter the color, the more our bether is stretched at that location.

          Next let’s draw a straight line from Bart to Angel and we’ll call this the “courtship” line.  Then we’ll mark the point on the blanket located exactly halfway between Bart and Angel and we’ll call this the “love” spot. 


A: Bart

B: Angel

C: Courtship line

D: Love Spot


You should see that the love spot is located on the darkest colored band of any band that the courtship line intersects between Bart and Angel.  Now if you were to measure the distance to the love spot from Bart, it would be 1 “unit” since Bart and Angel are two units apart.  If you were to then pick the spot in bether that is exactly 1 unit on the other side of Bart (call this the “hunter” spot),


A: Bart

B: Angel

C: Hunter spot

D: Love spot

E: One unit of distance


you would see that the color bands separating Bart and the love spot perfectly mirror the colors separating Bart and the hunter spot. 


A: Bart

B: Angel

C: (Hunter – Bart) stretching band mirrors…

D: …(Bart – Love) stretching bands

E: Stretching is balanced on both sides of Bart


There is a perfect balance of Bart’s surrounding bether within this radius; however, if you were to compare the colors any further past the love spot from Bart, and the colors any further past the hunter spot from Bart, it’s a quite different story.  It seems Angel’s presence has increased the stretching of bether on the other side of the love spot, whereas the stretching of bether past the hunter spot continues to decrease. 


A: Bart

B: Angel

C: Stretching decreasing (bands getting darker)

D: Stretching increasing (bands getting lighter)

E: Stretching is not evenly balanced


This imbalance of stretched bether between the outer and inner regions of stretched bether is what causes Bart to “gravitate” towards Angel, as in being “pinched” by the contracting bether on the outside of the hunter spot since this action is not countered by an equally contracting region of bether past the love spot.  The movement, however, is not limited to Bart since Angel likewise has a “gatherer” spot 1 unit away from her on the side of her opposite the love spot.  She too has contracting bether outside the gatherer spot that pinches her towards Bart. 

Bart and Angel’s movement towards each other is powered by the fact that the closer these particles are together, the less overall bether stretching they collectively exert due to their overlapping stretching regions (color bands). 


A: Bart

B: Angel

C: Love spot

D: Hunter spot

E: Gatherer spot

F: Stretched bether resists being stretched.  The closer Bart and Angel are together, the less combined stretching they exert on this overall region of bether and therefore are “elastically” pinched together, allowing the bether around them to relax somewhat


To analogize in a slightly different way with our blanket, place two heavy balls onto the surface in near enough proximity so you can see the blanket stretch slightly between them.  The modest hill of blanket material that lies between them, pales in comparison to the much more pronounced hills outside of them, and hence they are forced to “fall” together where the overall stretching stress of the blanket will be less than when they were separated.


A: Balls roll together


This is very similar to how bether works; the contraction of the bether in the larger region outside of any objects, overpowers the contracting ability of the smaller region of bether between these objects, and since the closer any objects are together, the less overall bether-stretching they collectively exert, they are thus pushed together into as close proximity as possible.

With Bart and Angel, the perception is that they are “attracted” to each other, when really they are “repulsed” inward towards each other by the contracting bether outside both of them.  As they move closer to each other, the pushing effects of gravity become increasingly more profound due to the exponentially increasing difference between the stretching between them and that outside of them.  So we see them approach one another, with the hunter and gatherer spots rapidly closing in behind them,


A: Bart

B: Angel

C: Love spot

D: Hunter spot

E: Gatherer spot

F: Bart and Angel accelerate towards each other


until finally they come into direct contact at the love spot,


A: Bartangel


thereby alleviating the greatest possible amount of combined stretching tension on our bether. 

Bether acts like our blanket that is stretched between two tables: it’s not stretched when left alone, but push up or down on it and it will elastically resist that tension.  Particles are pushed together where their combined bether stretching exerts less stretching overall, much like the way tiny bubbles underwater join together to form larger bubbles that overall occupy less volume than all the original smaller bubbles did.  This gravity mechanism works no matter how far apart the particles are since enough stretch circles can be drawn to always intersect at some love spot, no matter how slight the bether stretching may be at that point.

To summarize gravity: our two adjacent particles at rest are separated by a section of stretched bether (along the courtship line) that seeks to contract itself by pushing the two particles apart.  It alone however cannot compensate for the much larger volume of stretched bether surrounding both particles that would also like to contract, and so the outside bether overwhelms the inside to push the two particles toward each other. 


A: Bart

B: Angel

C: Love spot

D: Hunter spot

E: Gatherer spot

F: The smaller region of stretched bether between Bart and Angel would like to contract…

G: …but it is overwhelmed by the contraction of the much larger volume of stretched bether that surrounds both particles


As the particles move closer together, their individual bether stretching efforts merge (circles crossing) and as they approach one another they exert less combined stretching overall, allowing bether on the outside of them to continue contracting.  The closer the particles are when they move together, the more exponentially the amount of stretching is relieved.  The net gain in the contraction of stretched bether as particles move toward each other is what elastically propels the particles together; this is better known as the force of gravity.

          What has just been described is one of the universe’s most fundamental forces that pressures individual particles to join together to make bigger things.  When you get enough electron, proton, and neutron particles together, you can create atoms.  Group atoms together and you get what are called molecules.  Simpler molecules group into larger molecules.  Lots of molecules lead to gases, solids, rocks, creatures, planets, stars, and so on.  Why are large bodies like planets attracted to each other?  Because larger objects operate as the sum of their parts.  It’s just as easy to apply the Bart and Angel analogy to a pair of planets, or even to people being stuck to Earth.  The location of the love spot changes its relative position between two objects in a ratio respective to the masses being considered, but the mechanism holds true for any particles, or groups thereof. 


A: Hunter spot

B: Gatherer spot

C: Love spot

D: Larger mass

E: Smaller mass


Some scientists subscribe to the concept of a graviton, or a particle that causes the force of gravity.  This is an attempt to atomize gravity and is not supported by our theory.  Nobody wants gravitons at their love spot. 




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